Research on and with the Outcomes Framework and MARA
There is much work to be done to develop the Outcomes Framework and MARA as assessment tools that have the highest levels of validity and reliability and are most useful for professionals and those who fund them. Contributions from DM therapists, students and researchers internationally are welcomed on all of these projects. Contact us to express your interest.
The project currently has ethics clearance from the University of Melbourne (Number 1647380.3) that covers most of the topics below.
Current research projects:
- Translation of the Outcomes Framework into German: content, definitions
Researchers: Simea Schoenenberger-Howie, SRH University, Germany; Dr. Paula Lebre, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Professor Sabine Koch, Riart, Alanus Bonn Hochschule, Germany.
Timing: mid 2022-ongoing.
- Adaptation and Modification of Art Therapy Evaluation Protocol Outcomes Framework: content, definitions
Researchers: Dr. psych., Professor Krīstīne Mārtinsone, University: Rīga Stradiņš University; Liene Lāce University: Rīga Stradiņš University, Latvia.
Timing: mid 2021-ongoing.
- Aplicabilidade do Instrumento de avaliação Movement assessment reporting app (MARA) em dança: contributos para a validação da versão portuguesa. – Applicability of the MARA assessment instrument in Dance: contributions for the validation of the Portuguese version
Researchers: Carla Godinho, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Dr. Paula Lebre, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Unpublished Master Thesis
Timing: October 2020-April 2022.
- The Movement Assessment and Reporting App (MARA) for Music Therapy: research article
Researchers: Simea Schoenenberger-Howie, SRH University, Germany; Dr. Kim Dunphy, University of Melbourne, Australia; Professor Sabine Koch, Riart, Alanus Bonn Hochschule, Germany; Dr. Paula Lebre, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Claudia Schnettger, SRH University, Germany; Professor Dr. Thomas Hillecke, SRH University, Germany.
Timing: mid 2020-June 2022.
- Development of the Outcomes Framework: content, definitions
Researchers: Dr. Kim Dunphy and Natalie Poole, University of Melbourne, Australia; with Dr. Paula Lebre, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Simea Schoenenberger, SRH University, Germany.
Timing: mid 2020-ongoing.
- Reliability and short version of the Dunphy Outcomes Framework (DOF) Integrating the art and science of dance movement therapy
Researchers: Dr. Kim Dunphy, University of Melbourne, Australia; Professor Sabine Koch, Riart, Alanus Bonn Hochschule, Germany; Dr. Paula Lebre; Ella Dumaresq; Josephine Geipel; Simea Schoenenberger-Howie; June 2020 with DM therapists internationally, funded by the Australia-Germany Research Collaboration scheme (DAAD) and the two universities.
Timing completion: August 2020 – August 2023.
- Development of the Framework and graphing functions into an excel form to enable it to be used without an iPad.
Researchers: Dr. Paula Lebre, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Dr. Kim Dunphy, University of Melbourne, Australia; and Simea Schoenenberger, SRH University, Heidelberg, Germany.
Timing: May-September 2020.
- Development of a short version of the Framework, that will include only outcomes that all DM therapists might expect for their clients. This will open the possibility that outcome data about DMT could be gathered and shared across contexts and sites.
Researchers: Dr. Kim Dunphy, University of Melbourne, Australia; Professor Sabine Koch, Riart, Alanus Bonn Hochschule, Germany; funded by Australia-Germany Research Collaboration scheme and the two universities.
Timing: Feb- August 2020.
- Development of a Portuguese version of the Framework and MARA,
including validity testing of the translation.
Researchers: Dr. Kim Dunphy, University of Melbourne, Australia; and Dr. Paula Lebre, University of Lisbon, Portugal.
Timing: January-June 2021.
- Trialling of the Outcomes Framework and MARA with music therapists
Researcher: Simea Schoenenberger, SRH University, Heidelberg, Germany.
Timing: February-August 2020.
- Trialling of participant self-assessment using MARA
Dr. Kim Dunphy, University of Melbourne and Tessa Hens, Bayley House, Melbourne, funded by a University of Melbourne Social Equity Institute Community Fellowship.
Timing: March 2019-July 2020.
- Development of process of using the Framework and MARA to create a group profile
Researchers: Dr. Paula Lebre, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Dr. Kim Dunphy, University of Melbourne, Australia.
October 2019-June 2020.
- Development of a phone-based version of MARA app for therapy participants
The development of a version of MARA that is for therapy clients, that could be used in or between sessions to advance therapeutic objectives. This might involve communication with the therapist, between client and caregivers/families, or documentation of self-directed activities that can be reflected on in therapy sessions.
Researchers: Dr. Kim Dunphy and Sue Mullane, University of Melbourne.
Timing: June-December 2020, funded by University of Melbourne Engagement Grant.
- Contributos para validação de conteúdo da versão Portuguesa do Quadro de Resultados em Dança Movimento Terapia -MARA e proposta de narrativa de histórias. Mestrado em Educação Artística. – Contributions for content validation of the Portuguese version of the Results Framework in Dance Movement Therapy -MARA and storytelling proposal
Researchers: Ana Caridade, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Portugal; Professor Doutor Carlos Almeida, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Portugal; Dr. Paula Lebre, University of Lisbon, Portugal.
Unpublished Master Thesis.
Timing: October 2019-December 2021
Research projects as yet to be undertaken: offers of collaboration welcomed
- Content validation: experts scoring on of the Framework’s assessment elements: relevance, clarity, simplicity, ambiguity
- Intra-rater agreement of scores: How much consistency is there in ratings given by the same person across multiple instances
- Inter-rater reliability and intra-rater agreement of scores: How much agreement is there in the scores of different DM therapists? people in different professions (DM therapist, psychomotor therapists, student, untrained assistant)?
- Cultural differences in scoring: How do the scores of therapists from different cultures, or with clients from different cultures, align or not?
- Impact of timing on assessment: Is assessment scoring impacted by its timing: such as a controlled situation of watching video clip? In normal situation during a session?
- Impact of background knowledge of client on assessment: are assessment scores impacted by assessors’ background knowledge of clients?
- Alignment with other assessment tools: How do the elements in the Framework align with assessment parameters from other relevant tools? Can the Framework be validated against them? (Dr. Steve Harvey is interested to explore this possibil
DMT Program Planning
- Group profile: when planning a program, it is possible to average intake scores of individual clients to create a group profile that help the leader to decide on objectives. What is the implication of this process? Does it support effective planning?
- Setting objectives for different client groups: how are these decided upon? Which Framework elements are chosen for which clients, in which settings? How do these align with objectives of host organisation/funder (or not)?
- Non-norm referenced scoring: MARA’s assessment process requires the therapists to estimate what the client’s potential is on every element includes the possibility of changing the scale of clients’ maximum capacity over period of time. Is this a reasonable consideration?
- Length of observations needed: how long should observations and /or video used for assessment observations be? MARA currently enables video clips of 15 seconds..
- Developing client perspective in assessment: can MARA also be used to stimulate clients’ engagement and agency in the therapeutic process?
- For clients who have communication preferences that are non-verbal and may not involve reading and writing, how can media options of photos, videos and drawings potentially support their engagement in assessment of their own progress?
- Eco-sytematic approach to assessment: how can MARA support the contribution of other stakeholders, including other staff in agencies and families, in the assessment process?
- Reflective cycle in DMT: What are the implications of using such an assessment tool? For practice, does it become part of a reflective cycle? What mights its contribution be to decision-making for funding?
- What are outcomes of DMT programs for various client groups, as assessed using MARA and the Framework, tested in an RCT?
What would a report from MARA look like that was useful for funders, host agency and clients and families of DMT programs? How would reporting using data such as gathered through MARA, impact agencies’ understanding and valuing of DMT programs?
Training of therapists:
What are the implications of the use of such an instrument on student learning?
What does a process of assessing using a formal tool such as MARA contribute to students’ capacity: for observation, for planning, for sensitive leadership?
Translation of the Outcomes Framework and MARA into other languages including Korean and Chinese, including validity testing of the translation.
Cross profession use of the tools
Trialling of the Outcomes Framework and MARA app as assessment tools that could be useful for other therapy professions: drama therapy, art therapy, music therapy, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, psychomotor therapy, psychotherapists and counsellors, special educators, dance educators.
The tools on other technology platforms
Development of MARA on other platforms: tablets, computers, phones.
Development of a library of videos of clients, offering examples of assessment scoring, to help improved therapists assessment capacity and inter-rater reliability.
Development of a bank of literature to substantiate all the elements in the Framework
Bank of activities:
Development of a bank of data about activities that therapists can use to support participants to progress towards specific outcomes.
Transferability of outcomes from DMT: How could outcomes of DMT evidenced in sessions, as assessed by MARA, transfer into everyday life? What can a therapist do to advance transference?